Kobane Syria Sebastian Backhaus/ZumaPress

Parer au risque de bombe sale

VIENNA – Le terrorisme nucléaire constitue aujourd'hui « la plus grave menace » susceptible de nous frapper, explique le président américain Barack Obama. Si nul ne conteste cette affirmation, beaucoup de choses restent à régler dans le cadre de la minimisation de ce risque à l'échelle mondiale. Dix ans après que les dirigeants mondiaux aient convenu d'amender l'importante Convention sur la protection physique des matières nucléaires (CPPMN) de 1987, afin de faire plus efficacement obstacle à l'obtention de matériaux nucléaires par les groupes terroristes, il reste encore à faire entrer en vigueur les dernières mesures adoptées. La vulnérabilité qui découle de cette situation exige une action urgente.

En juillet 2005, les pays signataires de la CPPMN ont convenu de modifier la Convention, afin de parer plus activement au risque de terrorisme. Les mesures ainsi introduites visaient à minimiser le possibilité pour les terroristes de provoquer une libération de matières radioactives à grande échelle via des attaques sur des centrales nucléaires, ou par détonation d'un dispositif de dispersion radioactive – plus communément appelé bombe sale.

Mais avant que cet amendement puisse entrer en vigueur, il doit être ratifié par deux tiers des 152 signataires de la convention initiale. Bien que d'importantes avancées aient été accomplies en ce sens – les États-Unis, l'Italie et la Turquie ayant ratifié l'amendement au mois de juillet – l'intervention d'au moins 14 pays supplémentaires demeure nécessaire.

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