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匈牙利的大屠杀幻影

布达佩斯—匈牙利巴拉顿湖(Balaton)北岸风景如画的小镇巴拉顿弗雷德(Balatonfüred)有一座犹太名人馆(House of Jewish Excellence),里面陈列着130名在科学、技术、工程和数学(STEM)方面的犹太名人,其中许多是匈牙利裔。但是,名人馆商店内并没有与匈牙利犹太人有关的东西。你最多只能买到犹太酒,或者印有爱因斯坦吐舌头照片的马克杯。

也许这不是什么问题。也许我们应该庆祝匈牙利另一家犹太博物馆开门大吉。匈牙利是欧洲第二大犹太社区,但很少有大屠杀纪念馆。我们甚至忽略了一个事实:博物馆只承认STEM研究方面的杰出性,而没有向世人展示其他著名犹太学者,他们的成就与进步主义思想和行动关系密切。毫无疑问,这一有失偏颇的态度是在取悦给博物馆财务支持的匈牙利政府。

但展出还有一个令人无法忽视的痛苦的疏漏:对于它决定展出的犹太人才为何受到迫害,又如何存活下来,它没有做批判性思考。博物馆内唯一的三维实物展品是入口处的一块牌匾,说了一些“邪恶”和“杀戮计划”之类的场面话。这一对于大屠杀以及匈牙利人在其中的帮凶角色的暧昧态度——或者说沉默——是匈牙利令人担忧的大趋势的一部分。

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