European Union star insignia painted on concrete wall. barbiez/Flickr

西方文明的冲突

巴黎——维也纳和慕尼黑的微笑人群以及布达佩斯不友好的面孔共同组成了欧洲难民危机的典型景象。结果是“两个欧洲”的说法甚嚣尘上——一个善意友好、另一个严峻可怕。事实是有关国家是否应收容难民之争不仅为欧洲所独有。其中的差异显示出西方世界分歧之严重。

上述分歧既存在于美国、欧盟、以色列——同样也存在于犹太和基督教群体当中。一方是德国总理安吉拉·默克尔、欧洲委员会主席让·克劳德·容克、美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马、前以色列福利和社会服务部长艾萨克·赫尔佐格和教皇弗朗西斯这样的宗教人物。另一方则是匈牙利总理维克多·奥尔班、法国民族主义政治家马琳·勒庞、美国共和党总统候选人唐纳德·特朗普、以色列总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡、匈牙利红衣主教艾尔多和其他东欧牧师团。

各阵营都对难民的社会作用持有最基本的观点。第一类由认为民主价值比种族或民族身份更重要的人组成。在他们看来,任何遵守国家法律的人都能成为完全合格的公民,为焕发入籍国的活力做出贡献。

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