La plenitud de los derechos humanos

El 18 de junio el Consejo de Derechos Humanos, organismo intergubernamental de las Naciones Unidas, dio un paso importante hacia la eliminación de la división artificial entre la libertad para vivir sin temor y la libertad para vivir sin miseria que ha caracterizado al sistema de derechos humanos desde sus orígenes. Al dar luz verde al Protocolo Facultativo del Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales de 1966, el Consejo ha establecido un mecanismo importante para poner de manifiesto los abusos que tradicionalmente han estado relacionados con la pobreza, la discriminación y el abandono, y cuyas víctimas han sufrido a menudo en silencio y con impotencia.

Ahora dependerá de la Asamblea General de la ONU dar la aprobación final al Protocolo. Si se adopta, este instrumento podría marcar una diferencia real en las vidas de aquéllos que frecuentemente quedan abandonados al margen de la sociedad, privados de sus derechos económicos, sociales y culturales, como el acceso a niveles adecuados de nutrición, atención a la salud, vivienda y educación.

Hace sesenta años, la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos reconoció que la libertad para vivir sin temor y la libertad para vivir sin miseria son prerrequisitos indispensables para una vida digna. La Declaración vinculó inequívocamente la miseria y la exclusión con la discriminación y el acceso desigual a los recursos y las oportunidades. Quienes la redactaron comprendieron que la estigmatización social y cultural impide una participación plena en la vida pública y obstaculiza la capacidad de influir en las políticas y de obtener justicia.

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