Les droits de l’homme comme un tout

Le 18 juin, le Conseil intergouvernemental des droits de l’homme des Nations Unies a pris une importante décision en vue de supprimer la distinction artificielle entre le fait d’être libérés de la terreur et d’être libérés de la misère, propre au système des droits de l’homme depuis ses débuts.  En donnant le feu vert au Protocole optionnel au Pacte international de 1966 relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels, le Conseil a établi un important mécanisme pour dénoncer les violations généralement liées à la pauvreté, à la discrimination et à l’indifférence, que subissent fréquemment des victimes silencieuses et impuissantes.

C’est maintenant à l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies de prononcer l’approbation finale du Protocole. En cas d’adoption, cet instrument peut faire une réelle différence dans la vie de ceux qu’on laisse souvent languir en marge de la société et à qui l’on refuse des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels, tels que l’accès à une alimentation convenable, aux services de santé, au logement et à l’éducation.  

Il y a soixante ans, la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme disposait qu’il est indispensable pour avoir une vie digne de ne pas subir la terreur ni la misère. Elle associait sans équivoque l’indigence à la discrimination et à l’inégalité d’accès aux chances et aux ressources. Pour ses concepteurs, la stigmatisation sociale et culturelle entravait la participation pleine et entière à la vie publique, la capacité d’influer sur les politiques et l’obtention de la justice.

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