swan lake Brendon Thorne/Getty Images

Как культура формирует человеческую эволюцию

СЕНТ-ЭНДРЮС – Существует ли эволюционное объяснение величайшим успехам человечества – технологиям, науке и искусствам, – корни которого можно отследить в поведении животных? Впервые я задался этим вопросом 30 лет назад и работаю над поисками ответа по сей день.

Множество различных животных используют инструменты, подают сигналы, подражают друг другу и обладают воспоминаниями о прошлых событиях. Некоторые даже вырабатывают передаваемые посредством обучения традиции, влекущие за собой употребление определенных видов пищи или пение определенного вида песен, – действия, в какой-то степени напоминающие человеческую культуру.

Однако умственные способности людей стоят куда выше. Мы живем в сложных сообществах, основанных на лингвистически закодированных правилах, моральных принципах и социальных институтах, которые очень сильно опираются на технологии. Мы разработали летающие машины, микрочипы и вакцины. Мы написали истории, песни и сонеты. Мы воспроизвели в танце «Лебединое озеро».

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