Latin America Mario Tama/Getty Images

Vivir libres e iguales

MADRID – En los 25 años que transcurrieron desde la publicación en 1990 del primer Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano, el mundo ha hecho progresos sorprendentes en cuanto a reducir la pobreza y mejorar la salud, la educación y las condiciones de vida de cientos de millones de personas. Y, sin embargo, por más impresionantes que puedan ser estos beneficios, no se han distribuido equitativamente. Tanto entre países como en su interior, siguen existiendo profundas disparidades en el desarrollo humano.

Consideremos la mortalidad infantil. En Islandia, cada 1.000 nacidos vivos, dos niños mueren antes de su primer cumpleaños. En Mozambique, la cifra es de 120 muertes infantiles por cada 1.000 nacidos vivos. De la misma manera, en Bolivia, los bebés cuyas madres no tienen educación tienen el doble de probabilidades de morir en el lapso de un año que los bebés de madres con, por lo menos, una educación secundaria. Y estas disparidades continúan a lo largo de toda la vida de una persona. Un niño de cinco años nacido en un hogar de bajos ingresos en América Central mide, en promedio, cinco centímetros menos que un niño nacido en un hogar de altos ingresos.

Estas diferencias han echado raíces por varios motivos. Estos incluyen "desigualdades verticales", como una distribución sesgada de los ingresos, así como “desigualdades horizontales”, como las que existen al interior de los grupos por factores como la raza, el género y la etnicidad, y las que se forman entre comunidades, debido a una segregación residencial.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now