Latin America Mario Tama/Getty Images

Kehidupan yang Bebas dan Setara

MADRID – Dalam seperempat abad sejak publikasi pada tahun 1990 mengenai Laporan Pembangunan Manusia yang pertama (Human Development Report), kita telah menorehkan kemajuan yang luar biasa dalam pengentasan kemiskinan dan peningkatan kesehatan, pendidikan, dan kondisi kehidupan ratusan juta penduduk dunia. Meskipun demikian, sejumlah pencapaian yang membanggakan ini belum merata penyebarannya. Baik itu antar negara maupun di dalam negeri, masih terlihat tingginya ketimpangan dalam hal pembangunan manusia.

Contohnya kematian bayi. Di Islandia, dari setiap 1.000 anak yang dilahirkan, dua anak meninggal dunia sebelum menginjak usia 1 tahun. Di Mozambik, angka kematian bayi adalah 120 per 1.000 kelahiran hidup. Demikian pula di Bolivia, bayi yang lahir dari ibu yang tidak berpendidikan memiliki kemungkinan dua kali lebih besar akan meninggal di bawah usia 1 tahun dibandingkan bayi yang dilahirkan seorang ibu yang setidaknya menyelesaikan pendidikan sekunder. Seorang anak berusia lima tahun yang dilahirkan ke dalam keluarga berpendapatan rendah di Amerika Tengah, rata-rata memiliki tinggi badan yang 6 cm lebih pendek dibandingkan anak di keluarga berpendapatan tinggi.

Perbedaan tersebut terjadi karena berbagai alasan. Diantaranya adalah “vertical inequalities” seperti ketimpangan distribusi pendapatan, serta “horizontal inequalities” seperti perbedaan yang ditemukan dalam kelompok karena faktor-faktor seperti ras, jenis kelamin, dan etnis, selain itu juga perbedaan yang terbentuk antar komunitas karena pemisahan wilayah pemukiman.

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