Latin America Mario Tama/Getty Images

Vivre libres et égaux

MADRID – Au cours du dernier quart de siècle depuis la publication en 1990 du premier Rapport sur le développement humain, le monde a fait des progrès étonnants dans la réduction de la pauvreté et dans l'amélioration de la santé, de l'éducation et de conditions de vie de centaines de millions de personnes. Pourtant, aussi impressionnantes que soient ces avancées, elles ne sont pas distribuées de manière équitable. Aussi bien entre les pays qu'au sein de chaque pays, de profondes disparités persistent dans le développement humain.

Voyons le cas de la mortalité infantile. En Islande, pour 1 000 naissances vivantes, deux enfants meurent avant leur premier anniversaire. Au Mozambique, ce chiffre est de 120 décès de nourrissons pour 1 000 naissances vivantes. De même, en Bolivie, les bébés nés de femmes sans instruction ont deux fois plus de chances de mourir durant leur première année que les bébés nés de mères ayant au moins une éducation secondaire. Et ces disparités se retrouvent tout au long de la vie. Un enfant de cinq ans né dans une famille à faibles revenus en Amérique centrale est, en moyenne, plus petit de six centimètres par rapport à un enfant né dans un ménage à revenus élevés.

Ces différences ont plusieurs origines. On peut mentionner notamment les « inégalités verticales », comme la distribution inégale des revenus, mais aussi les « inégalités horizontales », comme celles qui existent au sein des groupes en raison de facteurs comme la race, le sexe et l'appartenance ethnique et ceux qui se forment entre les communautés, suite à la ségrégation résidentielle.

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