Latin America Mario Tama/Getty Images

自由而平等地生活

马德里—自1990年第一份人类发展报告发行以来的四分之一个世纪里,世界在减少贫困和改善数亿人的健康、教育和生活条件方面取得了巨大的进步。但是,尽管这些成就令人印象深刻,但分布却不是平均的。国家之间和国家内部都仍然存在严重的人类发展差异。

以婴儿死亡率为例。在冰岛,每1,000名新生儿中有两人活不到一岁。在莫桑比克,这一比例为每1,000新生儿120人。类似地,在玻利维亚,未受过教育的女性所生的婴儿一年内夭折的可能性比至少接受过初中教育的母亲所生的婴儿高一倍。而这些差异将伴随一生。中非低收入家庭的五岁儿童平均升高比高收入家庭矮六公分。

这些差异的原因各种各样。其中有“纵向不平等”,如倾斜的收入分布;也有“横向不平等”,与因为种族、性别、民族等因素而导致的群体内部的不平等以及因为居住隔离而产生的社区间的不平等。

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