查韦斯道路

伦敦—我清晰地记得我访问委内瑞拉的日子。我在加拉加斯希尔顿酒店屋顶泳池边晒日光浴。一位侍者走来,嘴里嘟囔着炸弹袭击纽约什么的。我直奔房间看新闻,电视里一遍又一遍地播放着两架飞机撞入世贸中心的画面。

2001年9月11日,我身在委内瑞拉参加名为“第三条道路”的会议。查韦斯对第三条导论饶有兴趣——即介于美国式资本主义和国家社会主义之间的生活方式,比布莱尔对此产生兴趣早了好几年。查韦斯本人身穿工作服,在会议上略一现身,一位老教授送了他厚厚一册马克思主义著作。

一天前,我在委内瑞拉央行进午餐,坐在我身旁的是副行长卢萨多(Gastón Parra Luzardo)。他告诉我,委内瑞拉人认为他们是“握着面包出生的”——意思是他们有权从该国石油收入中分一杯羹。因此,没人努力工作。一位叫奥乔亚(Orlando Ochoa)的经济学家解释说,寻租主导了委内瑞拉的经济。寡头集团为把持石油收入而斗争,民粹主义者承诺重新分配石油收入,两大集团都竭尽所能为自己攫取最大的好处。没人对创造财富感兴趣。

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