La oportunidad de Hu

La próxima visita del Presidente de China, Hu Jintao, a los Estados Unidos, que se aplazó a raíz del huracán Katrina, será diferente de anteriores reuniones bilaterales. Esta vez, los presidentes de esos dos países se reunirán en un momento en que en los Estados Unidos se presta una intensa atención a la balanza comercial EE.UU.-China y a otras cuestiones económicas, como la protección de los derechos de propiedad intelectual.

En vista de que el año pasado el superávit comercial de China con los EE.UU. alcanzó los 200.000 millones de dólares, en este último país aumenta la sensación de que será necesario adoptar medidas firmes al respecto. Algunos han indicado que el desequilibrio comercial se debe a la fijación de la divisa de China al dólar de los EE.UU. En un reciente proyecto de ley del Congreso se ha pedido que se imponga un arancel punitivo del 27,5 por ciento a las importaciones procedentes de China.

De hecho, el desequilibrio comercial es más complicado que la cuestión de las divisas per se. La mundialización ha fortalecido la capacidad del capital para lanzarse a las inversiones que prometan los réditos más elevados; asimismo, los productos manufacturados competitivos procedentes de economías en las que los salarios son bajos correrán en la dirección contraria. Ésa es la razón por la que China fascina a los inversores americanos, entre otros, y por la que los consumidores de los EE.UU. compran los productos chinos.

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