Mark Wallheiser/Stringer

Pourquoi Donald Trump risque d’affaiblir l’Amérique

CAMBRIDGE – Probable candidat futur du Parti républicain à la présidentielle américaine, Donald Trump démontre un profond scepticisme quant à la valeur des alliances que peut nouer l'Amérique. En effet, le candidat affiche une vision du monde très empreinte de XIXe siècle.

À l'époque, les États-Unis suivent les conseils de George Washington, évitant les « enchevêtrements d'alliances », et appliquent une doctrine Monroe centrée sur les intérêts de l'Amérique au sein de l'hémisphère occidental. Ne disposant pas d'une armée permanente suffisamment puissante (et aux commandes d'une force navale plus réduite en 1870 que celle du Chili), l'Amérique ne va jouer qu'un rôle mineur dans l'équilibre mondial des puissances au XIXe siècle.

Les choses vont résolument évoluer avec l'entrée des États-Unis dans la Première Guerre mondiale, Woodrow Wilson décidant de rompre avec la tradition en envoyant des troupes américaines combattre en Europe. C'est lui qui soumettra par ailleurs l'idée d'une Société des Nations, chargée d'organiser la sécurité commune à l'échelle planétaire.

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