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Wie Fake News Erfolg haben

WASHINGTON, DC – Nach der Welle von Fake News, die den jüngsten Präsidentschafts-wahlkampf in den Vereinigten Staaten begleiteten, richtete sich die Aufmerksamkeit auf diejenigen, die diese Meldungen in die Welt setzen und verbreiten. Die Annahme besteht darin, dass Leser und Seher stets zu den richtigen Schlussfolgerungen hinsichtlich einer Meldung gelangen, wenn die Medien ausschließlich über „Fakten“ berichten.

Allerdings berücksichtigt dieser Ansatz nur eine Seite der Gleichung. Ja, es bedarf Nachrichten-organisationen, die zuverlässige Information bieten; aber genauso bedarf es Empfänger, die sich als kluge und versierte Konsumenten erweisen.  

Jahrzehntelang unterstützte die US-Regierung in autoritären, dysfunktionalen oder unter Ressourcenmangel leidenden Ländern Programme zur Förderung unabhängiger Medien. Doch diese Programme gehen stillschweigend davon aus, dass die USA immun gegenüber jenen Problemen seien, mit denen Menschen in anderen Ländern konfrontiert sind, wenn sie Informationen erstellen oder konsumieren. Außerdem nehmen wir in den USA an, dass die mit Werbeeinahmen finanzierten amerikanischen Medien weiterhin florieren; dass unabhängiger Journalismus die Norm sei; und dass die meisten Menschen zu kritischem Denken fähig und in der Lage sind, sich fundierte Urteile zu den Informationen bilden, die sie erhalten. 

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