如何推销反保护主义

斯德哥尔摩-日益逼近的全球衰退使挽救崩溃中的公司的政府干预,成为经济政策的中心。就在最近的20国首脑峰会之前的一次演讲中,英国首相戈登·布朗警告美国当选总统巴拉克·奥巴马,不要援救陷入困境中的美国三大汽车制造商,他认为全球竞争使这三大汽车制造商的衰落无法逆转;因此,援救它们只能用纳税人付出的巨额成本,来延缓其必然衰落的趋势。

这类建议总是很难推销——在70年来最差的经济前景面前,尤其如此。毕竟,根据传统观点,竞争使工作机会向低成本国家转移,而且对其他地区的工资产生向下的压力。在全球化强化和加速了经济转变的时候,它也前所未有地影响了普通民众的生活,并且引起了广泛的恐慌。所以,难怪和美国的两位总统候选人一样,法国总统尼可拉斯·萨科齐在去年的选举活动中,被保护主义的诱惑所屈服。

但是,保护主义并不是对全球竞争的恐慌的唯一选择。在斯堪的纳维亚国家,和像在美国一样,在过去十年里外国竞争急剧加剧。中国和印度积累了巨大的经济实力,而且位于以前被孤立的共产主义国家中的临近国家,在快速地融入到欧洲经济之中。

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