Paul Lachine

كيف نحل أزمة اليورو

نيويورك ـ إن أي حل شامل لأزمة اليورو لابد وأن يشتمل على ثلاثة عناصر رئيسية: الإصلاح وإعادة تمويل النظام المصرفي، وإنشاء نظام سندات اليورو، وآلية للخروج.

أولا، النظام المصرفي. كانت معاهدة ماستريخت للاتحاد الأوروبي مصممة للتعامل مع اختلال التوازن في القطاع العام فقط؛ ولكن كما حدث هو أن التجاوزات في القطاع المصرفي كانت أسوأ كثيرا. وكان تبني عملة اليورو سبباً في نشوء موجة ازدهار في قطاع الإسكان في بلدان مثل أسبانيا وأيرلندا. وأصبحت بنوك منطقة اليورو من بين البنوك الأكثر اعتماداً على الاستدانة في العالم ـ وكانت الأكثر تضرراً بانهيار 2008. ولقد ظلت هذه البنوك في احتياج شديد إلى الحماية من تهديد الإفلاس.

ولقد اتخذت الخطوة الأولى مؤخراً عندما تم تفويض مرفق الاستقرار الأوروبي المالي بإنقاذ البنوك فضلاً عن الحكومات. ولابد وأن يتبع ذلك خطوات أخرى. إن رأسمال البنوك يحتاج بصورة عاجلة إلى الزيادة بشكل كبير. وإذا كان لأي هيئة أوروبية أن تضمن قدرة البنوك على سداد ديونها، فلابد وأن تتولى نفس الهيئة الإشراف عليها.

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