Mecca.

逃离麦加

洛杉矶——最近麦加发生的踩死千余朝圣者的踩踏事件悲情而有力地提醒人们这座城市在穆斯林世界的份量。按照神学传统,每位男性穆斯林只要条件允许,都必须在有生之年去一次麦加。

但实际上,只有到了近代麦加朝圣才在伊斯兰教中占据了如此重要的位置。这座城市向来不乏象征意义,但它在成百上千万穆斯林心目中的重要意义很大程度上是一种现代现象,这种现象近几十年才开始抬头,起因是沙特官员和原教旨主义瓦哈比教派的教士为扩大影响力推动宗教旅游。

伊斯兰历史上多数时间,绝大多数穆斯林并未奔赴麦加。相反,他们前往穆斯林世界随处可见的当地主要圣地朝圣。有些圣地供奉的可兰经先知历史甚至超过穆罕默德;还有些供奉着什叶派伊玛目和苏菲派圣徒;还有些则是穆斯林圣女的供奉之所。巴基斯坦马卡利墓地的命名隐含着其成为中世纪另一个朝圣圣地的雄心壮志:马卡利的字面意思是“小麦加”。

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