Mecca.

逃离麦加

洛杉矶——最近麦加发生的踩死千余朝圣者的踩踏事件悲情而有力地提醒人们这座城市在穆斯林世界的份量。按照神学传统,每位男性穆斯林只要条件允许,都必须在有生之年去一次麦加。

但实际上,只有到了近代麦加朝圣才在伊斯兰教中占据了如此重要的位置。这座城市向来不乏象征意义,但它在成百上千万穆斯林心目中的重要意义很大程度上是一种现代现象,这种现象近几十年才开始抬头,起因是沙特官员和原教旨主义瓦哈比教派的教士为扩大影响力推动宗教旅游。

伊斯兰历史上多数时间,绝大多数穆斯林并未奔赴麦加。相反,他们前往穆斯林世界随处可见的当地主要圣地朝圣。有些圣地供奉的可兰经先知历史甚至超过穆罕默德;还有些供奉着什叶派伊玛目和苏菲派圣徒;还有些则是穆斯林圣女的供奉之所。巴基斯坦马卡利墓地的命名隐含着其成为中世纪另一个朝圣圣地的雄心壮志:马卡利的字面意思是“小麦加”。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/AqfvePp/zh;
  1. China corruption Isaac Lawrence/Getty Images

    The Next Battle in China’s War on Corruption

    • Chinese President Xi Jinping knows well the threat that corruption poses to the authority of the Communist Party of China and the state it controls. 
    • But moving beyond Xi's anti-corruption purge to build robust and lasting anti-graft institutions will not be easy, owing to enduring opportunities for bureaucratic capture.
  2. Italy unemployed demonstration SalvatoreEsposito/Barcroftimages / Barcroft Media via Getty Images

    Putting Europe’s Long-Term Unemployed Back to Work

    Across the European Union, millions of people who are willing and able to work have been unemployed for a year or longer, at great cost to social cohesion and political stability. If the EU is serious about stopping the rise of populism, it will need to do more to ensure that labor markets are working for everyone.

  3. Latin America market Federico Parra/Getty Images

    A Belt and Road for the Americas?

    In a time of global uncertainty, a vision of “made in the Americas” prosperity provides a unifying agenda for the continent. If implemented, the US could reassert its historical leadership among a group of countries that share its fundamental values, as well as an interest in inclusive economic growth and rising living standards.

  4. Startup office Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    How Best to Promote Research and Development

    Clearly, there is something appealing about a start-up-based innovation strategy: it feels democratic, accessible, and so California. But it is definitely not the only way to boost research and development, or even the main way, and it is certainly not the way most major innovations in the US came about during the twentieth century.

  5. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.