Comme rendre l’intégration européenne populaire

Dans toute l’Union européenne, les craintes inspirées par la mondialisation et l’antipathie envers l’intégration et l’immigration ont eu d’énormes répercussions. On peut citer par exemple le référendum raté en France et aux Pays-Bas sur le projet de constitution européenne et un moratoire de facto sur les négociations d’adhésion avec la Turquie. Le Conseil et la Commission ont assisté, désarmés, au spectacle, comme si la situation n’était pas entre leurs mains.

La sagesse populaire suggère que l’incapacité de l’Union européenne à relever le défi de l’intégration est due à des structures économiques rigides et à un capital humain inadapté – des faiblesses auxquelles on ne peut remédier avec efficacité que grâce à des politiques nationales, où l’Union n’a qu’un rôle insignifiant à jouer. Mais de substantielles retombées des politiques dans toute l’Europe justifient une coordination renforcée dans le secteur du marché du travail et de la santé.

Les réglementations périmées du marché du travail sont les principales raisons pour lesquelles les bénéfices totaux du marché intérieur et de l’Union monétaire ont échoué à se matérialiser. Les rigidités du marché du travail, surtout en France, en Allemagne et en Italie, empêchent d’être à la hauteur de la concurrence toujours croissante. Ceux qui perdent leur travail ne peuvent en trouver de nouveau à cause des barrières frontalières, et le chômage de longue durée provoque un sentiment d’insécurité chez ceux qui travaillent. En considérant avec inquiétude les immigrants et l’intégration du marché intérieur, les deux groupes se sont donc de plus en plus montés contre l’Europe.

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