Mahmoud Zayyat/AFP/Getty Images

Cómo ayudar a Medio Oriente

BEIRUT – Hoy todos los síntomas de la conmoción de Medio Oriente son visibles en el Líbano. Los nuevos refugiados llegados de Siria e Irak se suman a los viejos refugiados palestinos. El país lleva dos años sin presidente, mientras una lucha de facciones políticas rivales (reflejo de la creciente enemistad entre sus valedores iraníes y sauditas) debilita la gobernanza local. La corrupción política es rampante. Algunos días la basura queda en las calles sin que nadie la recoja.

Pero el Líbano también muestra signos de resiliencia. Inversores y emprendedores asumen riesgos para crear nuevas empresas. Asociaciones civiles proponen e implementan iniciativas útiles. Los refugiados van a la escuela. Adversarios políticos colaboran para minimizar las amenazas a la seguridad, y líderes religiosos promueven la coexistencia y la tolerancia.

La resiliencia del Líbano le debe mucho al recuerdo de su penosa guerra civil (1975-1990). En el resto de la región, en cambio, las experiencias del pasado (que implican una larga historia de gobiernos autocráticos y tensiones en gestación desatendidas) atizaron las llamas del conflicto. Siria, Irak y Yemen están divididos por la guerra. En tanto, en las calles árabes y musulmanas se vive como una afrenta permanente el sufrimiento creciente de los palestinos. En este torbellino se multiplican nuevos grupos radicales con agendas transnacionales.

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