Mahmoud Zayyat/AFP/Getty Images

Come aiutare il Medio Oriente

BEIRUT – Oggi in Libano sono visibili tutti i sintomi del caos che caratterizza il Medio Oriente attuale. I rifugiati appena giunti dalla Siria e dall’Iraq si sono sommati ai rifugiati palestinesi che da tempo risiedono nel paese. Da due anni il Libano è senza presidente, e questo perché le fazioni politiche rivali, riflettendo la crescente ostilità tra i loro sostenitori iraniani e sauditi, stanno indebolendo la governance interna. La corruzione politica è dilagante, e non sempre la spazzatura viene raccolta.      

Ma il Libano dà anche segni di voler reagire. Investitori e imprenditori avviano nuove imprese pur se ciò implica notevoli rischi. Gruppi della società civile propongono e attuano iniziative di pubblica utilità. I rifugiati vanno a scuola. Gli avversari politici collaborano allo scopo di contenere i rischi per la sicurezza, mentre i leader religiosi invitano alla convivenza pacifica e alla tolleranza. 

La capacità di resilienza del Libano deve molto al ricordo di una guerra civile assai dolorosa (1975-1990). Al contrario, le diverse esperienze nel resto della regione, caratterizzate da una lunga tradizione di governi dispotici e sofferenze ignorate, hanno solo contribuito a fomentare conflitti. Siria, Iraq e Yemen sono oggi paesi dilaniati dalla guerra, mentre la sempre più difficile situazione dei palestinesi continua ad alimentare il risentimento nell’opinione pubblica araba e musulmana. In un simile vortice, non possono che fiorire nuovi gruppi radicali con mire transnazionali.      

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