Como Ajudar a Birmânia

RANGUM – Por todo o Médio Oriente, e agora na Birmânia (Myanmar), ressurgiu uma das grandes questões da política global contemporânea: Como podem os países evoluir de um autoritarismo decadente para uma qualquer forma de pluralismo auto-sustentado? Os ministros dos negócios estrangeiros em toda a parte, por sua vez, enfrentam questões políticas cruciais. Quando um país lança uma tal transição política, em que momento devem outros países ajudar, e qual a melhor maneira de fazê-lo?

As transições felizes, parafraseando Tolstoi, são todas iguais; mas cada transição infeliz é infeliz à sua própria maneira. As transições felizes através de grande parte da Europa Central, a seguir ao fim da Guerra Fria, foram facilitadas pelo facto de que a velha ordem comunista mais ou menos morreu por si e renunciou pacificamente ao poder. Isto, juntamente com o apoio generoso da Europa Ocidental, dos Estados Unidos, e de outros, ajudou a criar um ambiente conducente à reconciliação, permitindo a cada país enfrentar, de um modo comedido e não vingativo, as muitas e difíceis questões morais difíceis decorrentes do obscuro passado recente.

Acima de tudo, talvez, estas transições tomaram lugar por entre uma mais ampla rede de instituições legítimas – a União Europeia, a OSCE, a OTAN e o Conselho da Europa – que defendem o estado de Direito. Este contexto propício forneceu um roteiro aos legisladores nacionais, ajudando-os a construir instituições democráticas e a marginalizar extremistas.

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