Gobiernos nacionales, ciudadanos globales

CAMBRIDGE – Nada pone más en peligro la globalización que la amplia brecha de gobernanza que se ha abierto en las últimas décadas – brecha que se define como la disparidad peligrosa entre el ámbito nacional de la responsabilidad política y la naturaleza global de los mercados de bienes, de capitales y de muchos servicios. Cuando los mercados trascienden a la normativa nacional, como ocurre con la actual globalización de las finanzas, ello da lugar a fallos de mercado, inestabilidad y crisis. Sin embargo, impulsar la elaboración de normas en las burocracias supranacionales, como por ejemplo en la Organización Mundial del Comercio o la Comisión Europea, puede resultar en un déficit democrático y en una pérdida de legitimidad.

¿Cómo se puede cerrar esta brecha de gobernanza? Una opción es restablecer el control democrático nacional sobre los mercados mundiales. Esto es difícil y huele a proteccionismo, pero no es ni imposible ni necesariamente perjudicial para una globalización saludable. Como sostengo en mi libro La paradoja de la globalización,  ampliar el ámbito para que los gobiernos nacionales mantengan la diversidad normativa y reconstruyan las raídas negociaciones sociales mejoraría el funcionamiento de la economía global.

En lugar de ello, las élites de formuladores de políticas (y la mayoría de los economistas) favorecen el fortalecimiento de lo que eufemísticamente se denomina como “gobernanza global”. Según este punto de vista, las reformas – como por ejemplo las que mejoran la eficacia del G-20, aumentan la representatividad del Comité Ejecutivo del Fondo Monetario Internacional, y refuerzan las normas sobre capital establecidas por el Comité de Supervisión Bancaria de Basilea – serían suficientes para proporcionar un apoyo institucional sólido para la economía global.

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