Governi nazionali, cittadini globali

CAMBRIDGE – Niente mette più in pericolo la globalizzazione dell’enorme divario di governance – la pericolosa disparità tra il margine di manovra nazionale sul fronte della responsabilità politica e la natura globale dei mercati di beni, capitale e numerosi servizi – che si è aperto negli ultimi decenni. Quando i mercati travalicano la regolamentazione nazionale, come accade con l’attuale globalizzazione della finanza, i risultati sono fallimento dei mercati, instabilità e crisi. Ma lasciare il processo decisionale in mano agli apparati burocratici sovranazionali, come l’Organizzazione mondiale del commercio o la Commissione europea, può trasformarsi in un deficit democratico e una perdita di legittimazione.

Come si può colmare questo gap governativo? Un’opzione è quella di ristabilire il controllo democratico nazionale sui mercati globali. È un’operazione difficile e puzza di protezionismo, ma non è né impossibile né tanto meno dannosa per il benessere della globalizzazione. Come sostengo nel mio libro Il paradosso della globalizzazione, ampliare lo spazio di manovra dei governi nazionali per mantenere la diversità di regolamentazione e ricostruire i logori patti sociali potenzierebbe il funzionamento dell’economia globale.

Le élite politiche (e gran parte degli economisti) preferiscono invece rafforzare ciò che viene eufemisticamente chiamata “governance globale”. Secondo questa visione, le riforme come quelle tese a incrementare l’efficacia del G-20 aumentano la rappresentatività del comitato esecutivo del Fondo monetario internazionale, e rendere più rigidi gli standard di capitale fissati dal Comitato di Basilea sulla supervisione bancaria sarebbe sufficiente a garantire una solida base istituzionale per l’economia globale.

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