Gouvernements nationaux, citoyens globaux

CAMBRIDGE – Rien ne menace plus la globalisation que le fossé grandissant de gouvernance – la dangereuse disparité entre le champ national de la responsabilité politique et la nature globale des marchés de biens, de capitaux et de nombreux services – qui s’est approfondi au cours des récentes décennies. Lorsque les marchés transcendent la règlementation nationale, comme c’est le cas aujourd’hui avec la globalisation de la finance, il en résulte une défaillance des marchés, une instabilité, et la crise. Mais encourager la règlementation sur les bureaucraties supranationales, comme l’Organisation Mondiale du Commerce ou la Commission Européenne, peut induire un déficit de démocratie et une perte de légitimité.

Comment combler ce fossé de gouvernance ? Une option serait de rétablir le contrôle national démocratique sur les marchés globaux. Cela est difficile et relève du protectionnisme, mais ce n’est pas impossible ni contraire à une globalisation saine. Comme je le soutiens dans mon livre The Globalization Paradox (Le Paradoxe de la globalisation, ndt), permettre aux gouvernements nationaux de maintenir une diversité règlementaire et rétablir les négociations sociales tendues améliorerait le fonctionnement de l’économie globale.

Les élites politiques (et la plupart des économistes) sont plutôt en faveur d’un renforcement de ce que l’on appelle par euphémisme « la gouvernance globale. » Selon ce point de vue, les réformes comme celles qui améliorent l’efficacité du G20, augmentent la représentativité du bureau exécutif du Fond Monétaire International, et resserrent les standards de capitaux établis par le Comité de Bâle sur la supervision bancaire, suffiraient à apporter un étayage institutionnel à l’économie globale.

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