国家政府,全球公民

发自剑桥——没有什么能比近几十年来开始逐渐撕裂产生的治理漏洞对全球化危害更大了。这一漏洞体现了局限在国家内部的政治问责与商品、资本及其他许多服务的市场全球化本质之间充满危险的错位状况。当市场超越了国家监管之时——正如当前金融、市场失灵与不稳定的全球化现象——危机的爆发也就在所难免了。但把规则制定工作推给类似世界贸易组织或者欧盟委员会这样的超国家机构,却又面临着缺乏民主和丧失合法性的后果。

如何才能把治理鸿沟给堵上呢?其中一种选择是重建国家对全球市场的民主控制。这种做法实施起来很困难,甚至还带着些保护主义的意味,但它对健康运作的全球化来说既非不可能,也不一定有害。正如我在《全球化悖论》中所言,扩大各国家政府的管理范围以保持监管多样性并重建受损的社会契约将有助于提升全球经济的运作表现。

相反,政治精英(以及大部分经济学家)更青睐于加强“全球治理”(这是一种委婉的说法)。根据这种观点,那些提高20国集团运作效力的改革增加了国际货币基金组织执行委员会的代表性,收紧巴塞尔银行监管委员会设立的资本标准就能提供一个足以支撑全球经济的合理制度。

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