Jorge Fernandez/ Getty Images

Как покончить с голодом

СТАМБУЛ/КУАЛА-ЛУМПУР – В сентябре прошлого года мировые лидеры взяли на себя обязательство покончить с голодом к концу 2030 года, в рамках Целей устойчивого развития (ЦУР) ООН. Это звучит впечатляюще. В действительности мир уже сейчас производит достаточно продуктов для того, чтобы накормить всех. Почему же проблема не исчезает?

Бедность и голод неразрывно связаны, вот почему ЦУР ориентированы на искоренение как одного, так и другого. Человек, живущий за 1,90 доллара в день (сумма, установленная Всемирным банком в качестве черты бедности), тратит на еду 50-70 % дохода. По оценке Банка, в сельских районах живет почти четыре пятых бедняков мира, хотя население этих районов составляет менее половины по отношению к мировому. Очевидный вывод состоит в том, что для искоренения голода необходимо устойчивое повышение доходов жителей сельской местности.

Это будет нелегко сделать. Большинство развивающихся стран сегодня страдают от высокого уровня безработицы и неполной занятости. И, поскольку экономические перспективы сегодня не блестящи, особенно с учетом низких цен на сырьевые товары, а в большинстве мест продолжают настаивать на жесткой экономии финансов, положение с доходами сельского населения будет скорее ухудшаться.

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