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Comment éradiquer la faim dans le monde

ISTANBUL/KUALA LUMPUR – En septembre dernier, les dirigeants du monde se sont engagés à mettre un terme à la faim d'ici à 2030, dans le cadre des Objectifs de Développement Durable des Nations Unies (ODD). Cela ressemble à une entreprise de grande envergure. En fait, le monde produit déjà suffisamment de nourriture pour nourrir tout le monde. Alors pour quelles raisons ce problème persiste-t-il ?

La pauvreté et la faim sont intimement liées, ce qui explique pourquoi les ODD visent l'élimination de ces deux phénomènes. Pour une personne vivant au niveau de pauvreté fixé par la Banque mondiale à 1,90 dollar par jour, la nourriture représente entre 50 et 70 % des revenus. La Banque estime que près des quatre cinquièmes des pauvres dans le monde vivent dans des zones rurales, bien que ces zones représentent moins de la moitié de la population mondiale. La conclusion évidente est que l'augmentation des revenus ruraux durables est nécessaire pour éradiquer la faim.

Cela ne sera pas une tâche facile. La plupart des pays en développement sont actuellement accablés par des taux élevés de chômage et de sous-emploi. Et avec les perspectives économiques actuelles peu favorables, étant donné en particulier les prix des matières premières et l'insistance sur l'austérité budgétaire continue dans la plupart des régions, la pression à la baisse sur les revenus ruraux est susceptible de s'aggraver.

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