美国的退休演习

伯克利—随着美国首波婴儿潮开始退休,退休制度的漏洞正在显现。一大半退休者(以及超过60%的低收入工人)面临缺少足够储蓄在停止工作后维持生活水平的风险。在最新的国际比较中,美国退休制度的得分只能打及格;但对于庞大且不断增长的美国人口数量来说,这个制度是不及格的。

大衰退以来的缓慢复苏加剧了挑战。住房时大部分美国人的主要退休资产,而尽管住房价格最近有所反弹,但仍比2006年的峰值水平低了28%,更有28%的屋主,他们的按揭额比所拥有的物业价值还要高。

自由裁量雇主退休计划是美国退休制度的一大主要支柱。但有近1600万美国人要么无人聘用,要么退出了劳动力大军,与此同时,复苏期间创造的工作岗位一大半属于低薪职位,通常并不提供退休计划。相反,在复苏期间减少的625 000个公共部门职位倒是提供慷慨的退休金。

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