كيف ننقذ البنوك الجيدة ونسمح بإفلاس البنوك الرديئة

لوس أنجليس ـ تُرى كيف ينبغي لنا أن نعالج حالات الفشل النظامي الواسع النطاق التي قد ينزلق إليها النظام المالي في أي بلد في العالم؟ لا أحد يريد إنقاذ البنوك التي تتخذ قرارات رديئة. ولكن إنقاذ النظام المالي من الانهيار يتطلب منع كل البنوك من الإفلاس في نفس الوقت. والواقع أننا في احتياج إلى طريقة تيسر لنا إنقاذ البنوك الجيدة والسماح بإفلاس البنوك الرديئة. ولكن كيف يتسنى لنا أن نميز بين البنوك الجيدة والبنوك الرديئة؟

حين يتملك الذعر من الأسواق، كما حدث في عام 1929 ثم مرة أخرى في عام 2008، يصبح دعم النظام المالي ضرورة أساسية. والبديل لن يخرج عن انهيار أشبه بالكساد الأعظم الذي شهدناه في ثلاثينيات القرن العشرين. ولكن هذا لا يعني أننا لابد وأن ننقذ البنوك الفردية.

إن التاريخ الاقتصادي الحديث حافل بالأمثلة من الأزمات المالية المماثلة: الولايات المتحدة في أواخر الثمانينيات؛ والسويد وفنلندا والنرويج في عام 1992؛ واليابان في عام 1998؛ وقسم كبير من الاقتصاد العالمي في عام 2008. وتشكل الطرق التي تم بها التعامل مع هذه الأزمات دروساً بالغة الأهمية.

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