Le pillage de l'Afrique par les Français

La domination politique, économique et militaire incontestée de la France sur ses anciennes colonies d'Afrique Noire est enracinée dans une devise, le franc CFA. Créée en 1948 pour permettre à la France de contrôler le destin de ses colonies, quatorze pays (le Bénin, le Burkina-Faso, la Côte d'Ivoire, le Mali, le Niger, le Sénégal, le Togo, le Cameroun, la République Centrafricaine, le Congo, le Gabon, la Guinée Equatoriale, la Guinée Bissau et le Tchad) ont maintenu la zone franc même après qu'ils aient obtenu leur indépendance des décennies auparavant.

En échange de la garantie française de la convertibilité du franc CFA, ces pays ont consenti à déposer 65 % de leurs réserves de devises étrangères sur un compte spécial du ministère des Finances français et ont accordé à la France un droit de veto sur la politique monétaire de la zone franc chaque fois que ce compte spécial serait trop à découvert. Ces décisions ont eu des conséquences dévastatrices pendant quarante ans.

La majeure partie de la réserve de francs CFA provient du commerce entre la France et ses alliés africains. Par conséquent, la zone franc a toujours eu peu d'argent à sa disposition et des taux d'intérêt élevés. D'un autre côté, conformément aux programmes d'ajustement structurel du FMI et de la Banque mondiale, une discipline budgétaire rigoureuse a permis de conserver une inflation faible, comme si se serrer davantage la ceinture au nom de la stabilité des prix constituait la priorité à adopter en matière de politique dans des pays désespérément pauvres touchés par des décennies d'une demande en baisse.

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