Jak Francouzi drancují Afriku

Francouzská nezpochybnitelná politická, hospodářská a vojenská dominance nad jejími bývalými koloniemi v subsaharské Africe je ukotvená v měně - CFA franku. Měnová zóna franku byla roku 1948 vytvořena, aby pomáhala Francii ovládat osud kolonií, avšak čtrnáct zemí - Benin, Burkina Faso, Pobřeží slonoviny, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Kamerun, Středoafrická republika, Kongo, Gabon, Rovníková Guinea, Guinea-Bissau a Čad - ji zachovalo i poté, co před několika desítkami let získaly nezávislost.

Výměnou za francouzskou garanci směnitelnosti CFA franku souhlasily tyto země s tím, že deponují 65% svých devizových rezerv na zvláštní účet v rámci francouzské státní pokladny, a přiznaly Francii právo veta ve věci měnové politiky zóny franku, kdykoliv bude tento zvláštní účet přečerpán. Tato rozhodnutí měla po čtyřicet let pustošivé dopady.

Podstatná část peněžní zásoby CFA franku pochází z obchodu mezi Francií a jejími africkými spojenci. Základními vlastnostmi zóny franku proto byly vždy nedostatek peněz a vysoké úrokové sazby. Na druhou stranu přísná rozpočtová disciplína vyžadovaná programy strukturálních úprav MMF a Světové banky držela inflaci na nízké úrovni - jako kdyby v zoufale chudých zemích, po desítky let ničených kriticky nízkou poptávkou, bylo tou pravou politickou prioritou další utahování opasků ve jménu stability cen.

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