Hlad po vědě

AMSTERDAM – V deltě Mekongu sklízejí zemědělci 6-7 tun rýže na hektar v suchém období a 4-5 tun na hektar ve vlhkém období díky použití rychle zrajících odrůd rýže, které umožňují až tři sklizně ročně. Naproti tomu západoafričtí pěstitelé rýže sklízejí z jednoho hektaru pouhé 1,5 tuny tradiční „horské rýže“ za rok, přičemž další obilniny nevynášejí více než tunu – toto číslo je srovnatelné s výnosy ve středověké Evropě.

Takové nepoměry nejsou nutné. Šíření zemědělských technologií – od účinnějších strojů až po odrůdy plodin s vyšším výnosem nebo větší odolností – má potenciál podstatně snížit rozdíly v produktivitě, i když odlišnosti mezi různými klimaty a producenty přetrvají.

Například nový kultivar africké rýže s názvem Nerica má trojnásobně vyšší roční výnos. Zdokonalené metody chovu, kvalitnější strava a lepší veterinární péče zase v posledních čtyřech desetiletích více než zdvojnásobily průměrnou celosvětovou produkci mléka. Regionální diskrepance přesto zůstávají obrovské: krávy v Nizozemsku dokážou produkovat zhruba 9000 litrů mléka ročně, zatímco plemena zebu v tropech produkují pouze asi 300 litrů.

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