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纽约—四十年来,美国的主流思想一直是公司应该实现股东价值最大化——即利润和股价最大化——无论其他,无需顾及工人、客户、供应商和社区会怎样。因此,本月早些时候美国商业圆桌会(Business Roundtable)成员几乎全体一致签名发表声明支持相关利益者资本主义,着实令人震惊。毕竟,他们都是美国最强大的公司的首席执行官,他们告诉世界,做生意不能只顾利润。这个转变有点大。真的吗?

自由市场理论家、诺贝尔经济学奖得主米尔顿·弗里德曼(Milton Friedman)的名声不仅来自其传播股东至上思想,也因为让这一思想写入了美国法律。他,“企业有且只有一项社会责任——使用它的资源,参与能够增加利润的活动。”

讽刺的是,弗里德曼提出这些思想后不久,亦即它们流行开来,并写入公司治理法前后——好像它们是基于可靠的经济理论似的——桑迪·格罗斯曼(Sandy Grossman)和我在20世纪70年代发表了一系列文章,指出股东资本主义没有最大化社会福利。

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  1. solana114_FADEL SENNAAFP via Getty Images_libyaprotestflag Fadel Senna/AFP via Getty Images

    Relieving Libya’s Agony

    Javier Solana

    The credibility of all external actors in the Libyan conflict is now at stake. The main domestic players will lower their maximalist pretensions only when their foreign supporters do the same, ending hypocrisy once and for all and making a sincere effort to find room for consensus.


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