El factor competitivo

BRUSELAS/CIUDAD DE MÉXICO – Desde que la economía mundial comenzó a empeorar en 2008, el debate se ha centrado en las estrategias macroeconómicas y los instrumentos utilizados para hacer frente a la crisis y promover la recuperación. Pero corregir los desequilibrios y atender a las recesiones o desaceleraciones de corto plazo, si bien es importante, no debiera eclipsar la necesidad de establecer condiciones de largo plazo para el crecimiento económico sólido y sostenible.

Hasta ahora, la política macroeconómica ha cargado tanto con la culpa por el malestar económico como con la esperanza de superarlo. Sin embargo, deberíamos dedicar igual atención a los problemas microeconómicos –como incentivos inadecuados, fallas de mercado y deficiencias regulatorias– que nos condujeron a la crisis en primer lugar.

De hecho, así como los problemas microeconómicos del sector financiero dispararon una restricción crediticia y alimentaron la recesión mundial, también son la clave de la recuperación. Muchas economías deben solucionar problemas en el sector financiero y recuperar el crédito, y muchas más deben aumentar su productividad para impulsar el crecimiento y crear empleo.

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