Alexei Nikolsky/Tass/Getty Images

Dirigeants à poigne, le nouveau chant des sirènes

HONG KONG – Les dirigeants politiques autoritaires font leur grand retour. Il n’y a pas si longtemps, le président Vladimir Poutine comptait parmi les quelques dirigeants à poigne. Aujourd’hui, la concurrence abonde.

Cette tendance s’observe d’une part au sein de régimes traditionnellement autoritaires. En effet, le président chinois Xi Jinping est sans doute le dirigeant le plus puissant que la Chine ait connu depuis la mort de Mao Zedong, il y a quarante ans.

Mais un phénomène similaire se vérifie au sein même de pays jusqu’à récemment présentés comme de jeunes modèles de démocratie. En Turquie, le président Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, qui s’oriente depuis quelque temps déjà vers l’autoritarisme, concentre dans ses mains encore davantage de pouvoir depuis le coup d’État militaire avorté du mois dernier. Le Premier ministre hongrois Viktor Orbán opère quant à lui un virage radical en direction d’un recul des libertés, dans un pays qui se démarquait jusqu’à lors comme une réussite post-communiste. Les Philippins eux-mêmes, dont la Révolution du pouvoir au peuple avait permis de renverser Ferdinand Marcos en 1986, viennent tout juste d’élire à la tête du pays Rodrigo Duterte, dirigeant intransigeant, populiste et fier de l’être, leader à la gâchette facile dans sa lutte contre les barons de la drogue.

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