Wie neu ist Ägyptens „neue“ Außenpolitik?

KAIRO – In den Monaten nach dem Rücktritt des ägyptischen Präsidenten Hosni Mubarak haben seine Nachfolger durch Annäherung an frühere Gegner einen außenpolitische Wandel signalisiert. Die ägyptische Regierung begrüßte iranische Diplomaten und stellte sich auf die Seite der palästinensischen Hamas. Viele interpretieren derartige Schritte als klaren Beweis für Ägyptens Wunsch nach einer Diplomatie, die sich nicht amerikanischen Interessen unterordnet.

Allerdings passte Mubarak nie ganz in das von seinen Gegnern gezeichnete Bild eines amerikanischen Lakaien. Vielmehr erachtete es Mubarak als oberste Priorität, seinen saudi-arabischen Gönnern zu gefallen und nicht den Vereinigten Staaten. Obwohl er die amerikanische Politik manchmal unterstützte, wies Mubarak die USA auch häufig zurück, wenn deren Positionen sich nicht mit seinen eigenen in Einklang bringen ließen.  

Seit dem Ende des Krieges im Oktober 1973 war der arabisch-israelische Friede ein Grundstein der amerikanischen Nahost-Politik. Die USA wandten sich oft an Ägypten als das wichtigste und einflussreichste arabische Land, um eine führende Rolle bei der Förderung dieses Ziel zu spielen. Und wenn es ihm passte, spielte Mubarak auch seine Rolle. Als ihn der verstorbene Palästinenserführer Jassir Arafat vor dem amerikanischen Außenminister und den internationalen Medien demütigte, indem er sich weigerte, einen Zusatz zu einem in Kairo ausgehandelten israelisch-palästinensischem Abkommen zu unterzeichnen, sagte Mubarak zu ihm: „Unterschreib’ das, du Hundesohn!“  

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