Сколько будут действовать низкие процентные ставки?

КЕМБРИДЖ. Как долго могут сохраняться сегодняшние рекордно низкие процентные ставки по основным валютам? Десятилетние процентные ставки в Соединенных Штатах, Великобритании и Германии колебались вокруг некогда немыслимой отметки в 1,5%. В Японии десятилетний курс дрейфовал ниже 0,8%. Глобальные инвесторы, по-видимому, готовы принять эти чрезвычайно низкие ставки, даже если они, по-видимому, не компенсируют ожидаемый уровень инфляции. Ставка по казначейским векселям США с поправкой на инфляцию (так называемые «TIPS») в настоящее время отрицательна вплоть до 15 лет.

Является ли эта чрезвычайная ситуация стабильной? В самом ближайшем будущем, конечно; более того, процентные ставки могут падать еще дальше. В более долгосрочной перспективе, однако, эта ситуация, безусловно, не стабильна.

Три основных фактора лежат в основе сегодняшней низкой прибыльности. Прежде всего, есть «глобальный избыток сбережений» ‑ идея, популяризированная нынешним председателем Федеральной резервной системы Беном Бернанке в его речи 2005 года. По различным причинам количество вкладчиков стало расти во многих регионах. В Германии и Японии стареющее население должно откладывать на пенсию. В Китае правительство держит безопасные облигации в качестве инструмента хеджирования против будущего банковского кризиса и, конечно же, в качестве побочного продукта стабилизации обменного курса.

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