Jak nerovnost vyvolala krizi

CHICAGO – Před propuknutím nynější finanční krize ve Spojených státech politici z obou stran sněmovny ponoukali Fannie Mae a Freddie Mac, obří hypoteční agentury opřené o vládu, aby v jejich volebních obvodech podporovaly půjčky pro zájemce s nízkými příjmy. Za touto nově objevenou vášní pro domy pro chudé se ukrývala hlubší obava: narůstající příjmová nerovnost.

Od 70. let rostou v USA mzdy pracujících na 90. percentilu distribuce mezd – například vedoucích úřadů – mnohem rychleji než mzdy mediánového pracujícího (na 50. percentilu), například dělníků v továrnách a sekretářek. Za nárůst rozdílu mezi 90. a 50. percentilem může řada faktorů.

Snad nejdůležitější je to, že technický pokrok od pracovních sil v USA vyžaduje, aby disponovaly ještě většími dovednostmi. Před 40 lety na úřednických místech dostačovala dokončená střední škola, kdežto dnes sotva stačí nižší vysokoškolský titul. Jenže školská soustava nedokáže zajistit dostatek pracovních sil s potřebným vzděláním. Příčiny sahají od nevalné výživy, socializace a vzdělávání v raném dětském věku až po dysfunkční základní a střední školy, jež příliš mnoha Američanům nezajistí řádnou přípravu na vysokou školu.

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