Насколько эффективна помощь во время бедствий?

Когда наступает какое-либо бедствие, на авансцену выходят неправительственные организации (НПО). По оценкам ООН в мире сегодня насчитывается более 37 000 международных неправительственных организаций, а основные страны-доноры полагаются на них все больше и больше.

Конечно же, существуют и проблемы. Например, руандский геноцид в 1994 и  цунами в Индийском океане в 2004 спровоцировали хаотическую конкуренцию между неправительственными организациями. Тем не менее, были и значительные успехи. Больше 1 400 неправительственных организаций, функционирующих в 90 странах, помогли заставить 123 страны ратифицировать соглашение, запрещающее применение противопехотных мин. Но возрастающий масштаб помощи в «индустрии» борьбы с последствиями бедствий - плюс долговременные усилия по развитию неправительственных организаций - поставил серьезный вопрос о том, как измерять результаты их работы.

Гибкость позволяет неправительственным организациям носить инновационный характер, который часто бывает не под силу таким организациям, как ООН. Но существует мало международных правил о том, чем фактически является неправительственная организация, а недостаток контроля может привести к непредсказуемым последствиям. Недавно в Чаде французская неправительственная организация L’Arche de Zoé пыталась заняться контрабандой детей из страны, не получив разрешение от родителей детей или от правительства страны.

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