Nakolik účinná je pomoc při katastrofách?

Když udeří přírodní katastrofa, jsou nevládní organizace (NGO) na místě mezi prvními. Organizace spojených národů odhaduje, že dnes existuje více než 37 000 mezinárodních NGO, přičemž velcí dárci na ně spoléhají stále více.

Z toho zákonitě plynou problémy. Genocida ve Rwandě v roce 1994 i cunami v Indickém oceánu o deset let později vyvolaly mezi NGO chaotické soupeření. Vyskytly se však i přelomové úspěchy. Více než 1400 NGO působících v 90 zemích pomohlo přimět 123 států k ratifikaci úmluvy zakazující nášlapné miny. Samotná velikost „průmyslu“ humanitární pomoci při katastrofách – v kombinaci s rozvojovým úsilím NGO v delším časovém horizontu – však vyvolává vážné obavy o způsob měření jeho výkonnosti.

Díky své pružnosti mohou být NGO novátorské tak, jak to organizace typu OSN často nedokážou. Existuje však jen málo mezinárodních pravidel pro posouzení, čím NGO ve skutečnosti jsou, a tato absence kontroly může vést k nepředvídatelným důsledkům. Například francouzská NGO L’Arche de Zoé se nedávno pokusila propašovat z Čadu děti bez svolení rodičů i tamní vlády.

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