La montée d’une superpuissance économique

Les émeutes anti-japonaises dans toute la Chine ont attisé les tensions en Asie. L’essor économique rapide de la Chine suscite un mélange d’espoirs, mais surtout de peurs, qui balayent la planète. Faut-il vraiment craindre plus qu’espérer ?

Les Américains craignent un afflux de produits chinois sur leurs marchés. Le Mexique, le Brésil, l’Europe centrale, l’Indonésie et même le Sri Lanka s’inquiètent de la concurrence d’un pays aux salaires plus bas. Les Européens sont plus heureux, à l’idée de l’ouverture du marché chinois non seulement à leurs technologies et machines-outils (pour équiper ce nouvel atelier mondial), mais aussi aux produits de luxe et même au tourisme que réclame une nouvelle classe moyenne chinoise aisée. Le monde entier se prépare à des bouleversements considérables.

Un développement industriel aussi rapide est rare, mais non sans précédent. Les comparaisons les plus intéressantes sont l’Allemagne au XIXe siècle et le Japon au XXe.

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