Wie können die neuen EU-Mitglieder aufholen?

Von den zehn neuen EU-Mitgliedsländern, haben acht einen, im Hinblick auf Geschwindigkeit und Ausmaß, beispiellosen Transformationsprozess hinter sich. Welchen Bereich man in den postkommunistischen Beitrittsländern auch betrachtet - Geldwesen, Märkte, Eigentumsstrukturen, Banksektoren, Außenhandel, Gesundheitswesen, Umweltschutz und Bildung - überall gibt es Institutionen, die von Grund auf neu aufgebaut wurden.

In vielen Transformationsländern wurde die Schwindel erregende Inflation - 251 % in Polen im Jahr 1989 - gesenkt und nun verfügen alle Länder über konvertierbare Währungen. Die Privatwirtschaft dominiert Produktion und Beschäftigung. In Polen betrug der privatwirtschaftliche Anteil in diesen Bereichen im Jahr 1989 nur 23,1 % und in Tschechien und der Slowakei nur 4 %.

Ähnlich rasch lenkten die Transformationsländer nach dem Zusammenbruch des Rates für gegenseitige Wirtschaftshilfe (COMECON) im Jahr 1991 ihre Außenhandelsströme in den Westen um. Die Bildungschancen haben sich vervielfacht, die Luft- und Wasserverschmutzung konnte dramatisch gesenkt werden und die Lebenserwartung erreichte in der ganzen Region beinahe westeuropäische Werte.

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