巴西如何摆脱贫困

剑桥——上周,巴西总统迪尔玛罗塞夫访问华盛顿,这提供了一个契机令人们思考曾经像巴西一样的贫穷国家是如何摆脱贫困的。例如,像世界银行这样的发展机构呼吁提高商业法的地位,将其看作是一个摆脱贫穷的重要手段。他们是正确的吗?

这样的想法要追溯至马克思 韦伯的观点。他的观点认为有效的商业环境需要一套法律结构,这种结构应该像钟表一样准确。这种观点还认为投资者需要明确的规则和有效的法庭。在这种观点下,保护投资者利益的合同保险和有效机制成为了支持经济增长的根基。如果潜在的投资者不确定是否会得利,他们就不会投资,公司因此得不到发展,导致经济的发展停滞不前。规则和机构处在最重要的位置;真正的经济发展紧跟其后。

但尽管这种逻辑似乎很有说服力,巴西的经济腾飞并没有证明这一逻辑:法庭和合同方面的根本提高并没有在金融和经济增长之前出现,甚至金融和经济的增长并没有伴随着这两方面的提高。

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