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Globalizzazione per tutti

LIMA – Oggigiorno, gli avversari della globalizzazione sembrano eclissare sempre di più i suoi sostenitori. Ma se i primi avessero la meglio, l’ordine internazionale instauratosi all’indomani della seconda guerra mondiale – con l’obiettivo, spesso realizzato con successo, di promuovere la pace e la prosperità attraverso il cambiamento e le relazioni – rischierebbe il tracollo. È possibile, allora, salvare la globalizzazione? 

A un primo sguardo, la questione appare difficile. Ogni aspetto della globalizzazione, dal libero commercio alla libera circolazione di capitali, fino alla migrazione internazionale, è attualmente sotto attacco. A lanciare l’assalto sono forze antagoniste – dai partiti populisti ai gruppi separatisti, fino alle organizzazioni terroristiche – le cui azioni tendono a concentrarsi più sull’avversario da combattere che su ciò che vogliono promuovere. 

In Russia e Asia, i gruppi antioccidentali sono in prima linea nella campagna contro la globalizzazione. D’altro canto, in Europa, i partiti populisti tendono a enfatizzare la propria avversione per l’integrazione europea, con la destra che spesso condanna anche l’immigrazione, e la sinistra che denuncia una crescente disuguaglianza economica. In America Latina, invece, il nemico sembra essere l’interferenza straniera, in qualunque forma si manifesti. In Africa, i separatisti tribali si oppongono a chiunque ostacoli il cammino verso l’indipendenza. Infine, in Medio Oriente, lo Stato islamico (Isis) rifiuta la modernità in modo violento e prende di mira le società che invece la perseguono.  

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