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La mondialisation pour tous

LIMA – Les opposants à la mondialisation sont aujourd’hui plus bruyants que ses défenseurs. S’ils parviennent à leurs fins, l’ordre international issu de la Seconde Guerre mondiale – qui s’est appuyé, souvent avec succès, sur l’ouverture et les échanges pour construire la paix et la prospérité – pourrait s’effondrer. Peut-on sauver la mondialisation ?

À première vue, les perspectives semblent sombres. Toutes les manifestations de la mondialisation sont attaquées : le libre-échange, la libre circulation des capitaux et les migrations internationales. Des forces opposées mènent la charge – depuis les partis politiques populistes jusqu’aux groupes séparatistes en passant par les organisations terroristes –, dont les actions tendent à se concentrer contre ce qu’elles rejettent plutôt que sur ce qu’elles approuvent.

En Russie et en Asie, des groupes anti-occidentaux sont à l’avant-garde de la campagne contre la mondialisation. En Europe, les partis populistes s’appuient sur leur rejet de l’intégration européenne, condamnant l’immigration à droite, dénonçant la montée des inégalités à gauche. En Amérique latine, les interférences étrangères, quelles qu’elles soient, semblent être l’ennemi. En Afrique, des séparatistes aux revendications tribales se dressent contre quiconque conteste leur aspiration à l’indépendance. Au Moyen-Orient, l’État islamique (EI) rejette avec virulence la modernité – et prend pour cible les sociétés qui l’ont adoptée.

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