La batalla fiscal en los Estados Unidos

BERKELEY – Las recientes elecciones presidenciales en los Estados Unidos dieron respuesta a la cuestión de si un aumento en los ingresos será parte del plan de reducción del déficit del país a largo plazo. La respuesta es sí: ahora hay un acuerdo entre los dos partidos sobre la necesidad de un enfoque “equilibrado” que incluya los aumentos de los ingresos y los recortes del gasto.

Sin embargo, aún hay fuertes divisiones políticas e ideológicas sobre cómo generar ingresos adicionales y quiénes deberían pagar impuestos más altos. Si no se logra un acuerdo preliminar sobre estos asuntos para finales de año, la economía se enfrentará a un “precipicio fiscal” de 600 mil millones de dólares en incrementos fiscales y recortes del gasto automáticos que reducirán el PIB en un 4% y desencadenarán una recesión.

La mayoría de los ciudadanos están de acuerdo con el presidente, Barack Obama, en que los aumentos de impuestos para reducir el déficit deben recaer en el 2% a 3% superior de los contribuyentes que son quienes han disfrutado los mayores aumentos de ingreso y riqueza en los últimos treinta años. Por ello, el presidente está proponiendo que las reducciones fiscales concedidas en 2001 y 2003 a esos contribuyentes expiren a final de año y que las otorgadas a los demás se prorroguen.

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