„Brexit“, Artikulation und Loyalität

PRINCETON – Albert Hirschman, der Ende letzten Jahres starb, war ein großer Ökonom mit einer Begabung für die Vermittlung verblüffender Einsichten. Durch die Beobachtung einzelner Verhaltensweisen war er in der Lage, unsere Sichtweise einer ganzen Reihe bestimmter Probleme zu verändern. Eine seiner weitreichendsten Einsichten war sein Modell von „exit, voice, and loyalty” (deutscher Buchtitel: „Abwanderung und Widerspruch“).

In Folge einer Erfahrung mit schlechten Zugverbindungen in Westafrika erkannte Hirschman, dass sich die Effizienz eines komplexen sozialen System dann, wenn es Menschen ermöglicht, es zu verlassen (exit), verschlechtern kann. Eine bessere Lösung wäre, die Menschen bei sich zu behalten (loyalty). wodurch sie Anreize erhalten, Forderungen zu artikulieren (voice), was die Leistungsfähigkeit des Systems verbessern würde.

Es ist leicht zu sehen, wie diese Theorie auf persönliche Beziehungen angewendet werden kann. Ehen gehen zu Bruch, wenn Scheidungen (exit) zu einfach sind, werden aber dann unerträglich, wenn kein Sinn für Gegenseitigkeit und Diskussion oder Artikulation (voice) vorhanden ist. Die Artikulation kann auch dann leiden, wenn neue Möglichkeiten vorhanden sind: Ein neuer potenzieller Partner führt dazu, dass kein Druck mehr da ist, innerhalb der bestehenden Beziehung zu reden und das Verhältnis zu verbessern.

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