英国退出、呼吁和忠诚

普林斯顿—去年底去世的阿尔伯特·赫希曼(Albert Hirschman)是一位伟大的经济学家,他擅长通过专注于可观察行为的某一要素,以此作为转变我们对一系列具体问题的看法的方式,并获得了令人瞩目的成就。他最有影响力的洞见之一是“退出、呼吁和忠诚”(exit, voice, and loyalty)框架。

这一框架最初源于在西非的劣等火车体验。赫希曼发现,如果复杂的社会制度允许人们离开(退出),则其效率将会降低;更好的方案是把人留住(忠诚),这会给他们表达需求(呼吁)的激励,而呼吁会改善制度的表现。

在人际关系中,这一理论很容易观察。若离婚(退出)很容易,则婚姻就会破裂;但若缺少共同性或沟通(呼吁),婚姻同样难以维持。如果新的可能性浮现,则呼吁会减弱:潜在的新伴侣意味着不再有在现有框架内讨论和改善关系的压力。

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