英国退出、呼吁和忠诚

普林斯顿—去年底去世的阿尔伯特·赫希曼(Albert Hirschman)是一位伟大的经济学家,他擅长通过专注于可观察行为的某一要素,以此作为转变我们对一系列具体问题的看法的方式,并获得了令人瞩目的成就。他最有影响力的洞见之一是“退出、呼吁和忠诚”(exit, voice, and loyalty)框架。

这一框架最初源于在西非的劣等火车体验。赫希曼发现,如果复杂的社会制度允许人们离开(退出),则其效率将会降低;更好的方案是把人留住(忠诚),这会给他们表达需求(呼吁)的激励,而呼吁会改善制度的表现。

在人际关系中,这一理论很容易观察。若离婚(退出)很容易,则婚姻就会破裂;但若缺少共同性或沟通(呼吁),婚姻同样难以维持。如果新的可能性浮现,则呼吁会减弱:潜在的新伴侣意味着不再有在现有框架内讨论和改善关系的压力。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/6noj9Jz/zh;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now