Négociations ardues et changement climatique

AMSTERDAM – Quand le panda sourit, le monde applaudit ; ou c'est ce qu'il semblait faire après la récente allocution du président chinois Hu Jintao aux Nations unies. À la façon dont la plupart des médias ont repris ses propos, il a semblé que la Chine avait fait une annonce importante sur la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre.

Mais ce n'est pas le cas. Tout ce que le président Hu a dit en réalité, c'est que la Chine allait s'efforcer de « limiter » ses émissions de carbone d'une marge « notable ». Mais comment mesurer « s’efforcer » ou « notable » ? Pour reprendre la réponse que m’a donnée, quand j'ai insisté, une personne étroitement liée au gouvernement chinois : « ce qui a été dit ne signifie pas grand-chose ».

En fait, il n'y avait pas d’objectifs précis et, comme tout observateur de la Chine le sait, la nouvelle de rendre le gouvernement « plus vert » ne date pas d'hier. La politique chinoise officielle des dernières années porte sur une croissance du PIB plus respectueuse de l’environnement, mais pas aux dépens de la croissance elle-même – et la Chine prévoit de croître assez rapidement.

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