Réel espoir ou simple battage médiatique pour une médecine personnalisée ?

STANFORD – Au cours des décennies écoulées, les traitements pour un grand nombre de maladies ont évolué d’une approche « taille unique » vers une stratégie plus personnalisée. En conséquence, les patients peuvent désormais se voir adapter le meilleur médicament selon leur profil génétique ou la sous-catégorie précise de leur maladie. Cela permet aux médecins d’éviter de prescrire un médicament (ou un dosage) qui pourrait entrainer de graves effets secondaires sur certaines populations.

En d’autres termes, chaque patient d’un groupe souffrant apparemment de la même maladie et des mêmes symptômes recevrait un traitement qui serait déterminé par différents tests prédictifs ou pronostiques. A terme, ces tests pourraient même s’étendre au séquençage de l’ADN des cellules cancéreuses d’un individu donné, par exemple.

Mais une approche aussi pointue, même si elle est une aubaine pour les patients, pourrait s’avérer dramatique pour les performances économiques des entreprises pharmaceutiques. Les raisons à cela sont subtiles.

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